The internet plays a very important role in every sector today. This is because it has revolutionized the way we communicate, interact, and operate. There are different ways through which it is provided to the consumers. One of them is via satellites. The Internet that is provided in this way is known as satellite internet.
It is provided to the consumer through Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. LEO satellites are preferred because they can reach all parts of the earth, unlike the geostationary ones which cannot transmit signals to the Polar Regions. Geostationary satellites also have high latency which causes significant delays in communication and data reception. On the other hand, LEO and MEO types have little latency but transmit signals at lower speeds.
Due to these setbacks, engineers are designing ultralight atmospheric aircraft to replace the satellites. These are gadgets that fly about 20,000 meters above the ground. They have solar panels on their wings which ensure that the computers onboard have a constant supply of electricity during the day and night. Signals from the ground are relayed to and from the aircraft. This reduces the distance the signals cover during transmission which in turn greatly reduces the latency.
Signal transmission is normally affected by moisture and other types of precipitation. High-frequency signals are more affected than low-frequency signals. Therefore, low-frequency signals are used in tropical regions that experience heavy rainfall. However, if high frequencies are to be used, techniques such as rain margins and adaptive uplink power control can be used to strengthen the signal.
The operation of satellites mainly relies on the line of sight. There should be a clear line of sight between the dish and the satellite. Obstructions such as vegetation cover, buildings, and any other type of obstruction reduce the efficiency of the system. So the dishes should be installed in the open ground facing the direction of the satellite.
There are several different types of satellite communication. Two-way satellite-only communications are one of them. It involves sending signals to and from the VSAT through satellites to a hub teleport. The hub teleport then transmits data through the terrestrial internet. The dish at each point must be correctly aligned to avoid interference with other signals.
The other type is one-way receive with terrestrial transmit communication. This type utilizes dial-up access to the internet. This means that uploads are made via a telephone modem while downloads are sent through satellites at high speeds. The upload volume is normally very low because it is not charged per time but per volume uploaded.
Finally, there is the one-way receive only multicast communication type. This type is used for transmission of video, audio, and internet protocol multicast data. Most protocols cannot work with this mode of communication since they require a return path. Web pages can be viewed and distributed through this system by transferring them to the local storage at the end-user sites. However, full interaction between the user and the original site is not possible.
Despite the few setbacks, satellite internet is very effective and reliable. It enables long distant network communication which makes it the most ideal way to provide online services across the world.